Botanical nomenclature is the formal way of saying, ‘The scientific naming of plants’. Plant taxonomy is first used to group and classify all plants; then botanical nomenclature provides names for the results of this sorting process.
They say Latin is a dead, unspoken language, but I speak it every day at my job in horticulture. Plants have both a common name and a formal, scientific name. When you talk to your Southern cousin and she tells you she has bluebells in her yard, they could be a completely different plant than what we Midwesterners call a bluebell. Poor Arisaema triphyllum has many names: Jack-in-the-pulpit, bog onion, wild turnip, brown dragon, Indian turnip, death flower or American wake robin.
By using Latin nomenclature, I ensure that I order exactly which variety I want, especially if I’m matching existing plants. Scientists refer to this method as the binomial naming system, as all biological things have an order. Many times the Latin name reveals characteristics of the plant such as color, size, origin, and growth habit among other things.
The ‘white bleeding heart, lyre flower or lady-in-a-bath’ will be my example.
Dicentra spectabilis ‘Alba’ Synonym Lamprocapnos (shakes fist at botanists)
Dicentra is the first part of the name called the genus. This section groups plants that are closely related. The translation is; Di = two + centra = spurs, which describes the flower.
The next part of the name is called the specific epithet, which further describes the plant; spect = looking + abilis = able.
The last part of this name [in this case] is the variety. This describes qualities that differ from the species, and will grow true from seed. ‘alba’ = white.
Names of cultivars are also after the specific epithat and in quotes. These do not grow true from seed and are capitalized as usually, they relate to the creator or something catchy for marketing such as, Coreopsis verticillata ‘Moonbeam’ and Hosta ‘Big Daddy’.
Hybrids would be the last type of scientific name that combines the names of the two plants involved. Abelia x grandiflora or the glossy abelia, was developed by crossing Abelia chinensis and Abelia uniflora. These plants do not grow true from seed. Examples are: Calamagrostis x acutiflora ‘Karl Forester‘ and Gaillardia x grandiflora ‘ Arazona Sun’.
Here’s some basic Latin to help ease you into it!
Alba = white
Aurea = golden foliage
Contorta = twisted
Elata = tall
Grandiflora = large flowers
Grandifolia = large leaves
Japonica = from Japan
Lutea = yellow
Nana = dwarf
Occidentalis = from the West
Orientalis = from the East
Pendula = weeping
Purpurea = purple
Repens = creeping
Sempervirens = evergreen
Syricta = upright
Tomentosa = downy
© The Naturarian