Tag: gardening

Beware of the Mulch Volcano ~ No Tree is Safe!!

mulch volcano There are many rumors out there that somehow become common knowledge that are very detrimental to whatever the cause is.

Mulching trees is one of them. I am so saddened when I see trees mulched up to their lower branches, called ‘Mulch Volcanoes’. If the truck of your tree looks the same as a telephone pole, there’s too much mulch on it!!! The tree should flare out where it comes out of the ground.tree fell due to too much mulch on trunk

Sadly, homeowners see this and think this is the correct way to go and the vicious cycle continues. Professional landscapers do it all the time just to fill their pockets, telling you it’s horticulturally correct. Don’t fall for it! You DO NOT need to add mulch to your beds yearly. It is a good idea to cultivate what is still there, though. My advice is to apply biannually or where it may have eroded.

There are many problems that a mulch volcano can cause. Girdling roots, poor growth, mold to name a few.. However, crown rot rates as a number one worst issue. One stiff breeze is all it will take. Notice in the photo to the right, the trunk snapped off right at the mulch-line. These types of happenings can cause some costly repairs. Mulch volcanoes are sneaky. This tree looked completely healthy. Sometimes a tree with a lot of gumption will grow large, however the bigger they are, the harder they fall.

Here are my PeeGee Hydrangea trees, PROPERLY mulched, which looked to have survived my fall planting. You can clearly see the root flair at the top of the mulch line. I really only put enough over the rootball to make it the same color/blend well with the mulch doughnut.

tree properly mulched

correct way to mulch

Below is a reality check. Look how high that mulch was! 😯

© The Naturarian

Identifying Diplodia Tip Blight in Pines

Diplodia tip blight is a disease of pines in the Midwest area and the treatment window will soon be upon us. This disease is caused by the fungus Sphaeropsis sapinea and highly effects two-needled pines such as Austrian, scotch, mugo and red, but can infect all evergreens. Here, our Austrian Pines are the most affected and are no longer planted here.

pine with blight on needles

The disease will eventually kill the tree, but can take a long time, without treatment (5 years-ish). Although treatments can slow the process, careful thought is needed in a budgetary sense. The tree will begin to have die-back (larger branch death) and will require regular pruning to be aesthetically pleasing… if that’s even possible. Treatments can be costly, worse-case ineffective, if not applied correctly. The cost of removal will go up as the tree gets larger or becomes more hazardous to fell. In the end, depending where the tree is located, along with the ‘value’ placed on the tree, it may be more cost-effective to remove the tree and replace it as soon as diagnosed.

blight on pine needle

The Diplodia fungus overwinters on infected needles, cones, and within the bark of twigs. Spores are released from spring through late fall. New shoots are infected during the spring from bud break to the end of the growing season. The cones are infected during the spring of the second season, as it takes two years for cones to mature.

Spread of the disease is by the splashing of water, be it rain or over-head irrigation. Because this disease tends to overwinter and spread from infected cones, symptoms are first noticeable on the lower branches, as old cones collect under the tree. Symptoms of infected trees become visible in summer through fall and resemble stunted needle growth and yellowing. Spores can be seen on the needles & old cones as black dots. Because cones are more susceptible to infection, younger, non-cone bearing trees are often symptom-free.

Managing Diplodia tip blight focuses on tree health and sanitation. Providing proper care such as no overhead (and proper) watering, mulching, pest management and fertilization, helps suppress the disease. Removal of diseased cones from the ground helps, but is not practical in large stands of pines. Pruning of infected tips will aesthetically improve the tree, but will do little in the stop of the disease.

Severely infected trees should be removed. A fungicide spray program needs to be implemented in the spring and includes at least three applications. Make the first application just prior to bud break* (which will be soon) and make two additional applications at 10-day intervals. It is important to get the first application on the trees before any bud sheaths have broken (the papery tan cover). If the tree you’re trying to save is of high value, consult a licensed ISA arborist, as the chemicals available to professionals are usually more effective.

* Indicator plants to watch for blooming that coincide with bud break:

  • Spiraea x vanhouttei – Vanhoutti Spirea
  • Cercis canadensis – Eastern Redbud
  • Chaenomeles speciosa – Quince
  • Syringa vulgaris – Common Lilac

© The Naturarian

Redheads Beware – Dutch Elm Disease is In the Air!

Last week, a BBC Radio broadcast featured an interview with an elderly academic, Dr. Clothier, who talked about the government’s efforts to stop the spread of Dutch Elm Disease, which had been infecting many of England’s trees. Dr. Clothier described some startling discoveries about the tree disease. For instance, he referred to the research of Dr. Emily Lang of the London School of Pathological and Environmental Medicine who had found that exposure to Dutch Elm Disease immunized people to the common cold.

Unfortunately, there was a side effect. Exposure to the disease also caused red hair to turn blonde. It is thought that the similarity between the blood count of redheads and the soil conditions is what caused the change. Therefore, redheads are advised to stay away from forests for the foreseeable future, until there are no longer any Elm trees in existence.

Red-blonde-Ombre-Hairstyle

APRIL FOOLS!!!

Dr. Clothier was actually the comedian Spike Milligan. This was originally pranked in 1950.

© The Naturarian

How to Attract Butterflies With Host Trees!

I’ve seen and read many lists of flowers to plant to attract pollinators, including butterflies to the garden. How a flower is shaped and when it blooms are key to luring these beauties in. Although I feel it’s a great start to attracting a diversity of insects to the garden, most of these lists only address the feeding aspects of an adult butterfly.

Another detail I notice is most lists only include annuals and perennials, which are herbaceous (soft stemmed). Many great trees and shrubs are lacking representation in these blooming lists. Not only that, butterflies need ‘host plants’ for their larvae. A host plant is just what it sounds like, a plant that an insect (butterfly) can lay their eggs on and when the larvae hatch, can be fed upon. Usually, we’re not talking about much damage to the tree. Nothing the tree can’t handle.

Because I speak for the Lorax, and he speaks for the trees… I’ve compiled a list of TREES that many butterfly parents choose to raise their young on. So, don’t just think of the adult butterfly and the flowers, think about a great investment tree, that can serve as a butterfly nursery!

If you’d like a quote for a tree install, please contact me 🙂

The following is a list of larval host tree & shrubs and the butterfly species that are attracted to them.

Printable List – .pdf format

Amelanchier spp. – Serviceberry

  • Bruce Spanworm
  • Blindy Sphinx (small)
  • Striped Hairstreak
  • Amorpha canescens
  • Black-spotted Prominent
  • Dog Face
  • Asimina triloba
  • Zebra Swallowtail

Betula spp. – Birch

  • Compton Tortoiseshell
  • Dreump Duskywing
  • Mourning Cloak
  • Tiger Swallowtail
  • White-marked Tussock Moth

Carya spp. – Hickory

  • Hickory Hairstreak
  • Hickory Horn D.
  • Luna Moth
  • Skipper spp.

Catalpa

  • Catalpa Sphinx
  • Ceanothus americanus
  • Filamont Beaver
  • Spring/Summer Azure

Celtis spp. – Hackberry

  • American Snout
  • Io Moth
  • Question Mark
  • Mourning Cloak
  • Spiny Oak Slug
  • Tawny Emperor
  • Comptonia
  • Gray Hairstreak

Cornus spp. – Dogwood

  • Monkey Slug
  • Dogwood Thyativid
  • Polyphemus Moth
  • Spring/Summer Azure
  • Unicorn Caterpillar

Corylus spp. – Filbert

  • Polyphemus Moth
  • Saddled Prominent

Crataegus spp. – Hawthorn

  • Interruped Dagger Moth
  • Small Eyed Sphinx
  • Smeared Dagger Moth
  • Striped Hairstreak
  • Fraxinus spp.
  • American Dagger Moth
  • Black Auches
  • Giant Leopard Moth
  • Harvis Three-Spot
  • Hickory Horned Devil
  • Linden Looper
  • Spiny Oak Slug
  • Tiger Swallowtail
  • Lindera benzoin
  • Giant Leopard Moth
  • Promethea Moth
  • Spicebush Swallowtail

Populus spp. – Poplar

  • Compton Tortoiseshell
  • Red-spotted Purple
  • Twin Spotted Sphinx
  • Satin Moth
  • Sigmoid Prominent
  • Viceroy
  • Virgin Moth

Prunus spp. – Cherry

  • Cherry Dagger Moth
  • Coral Hairstreak
  • Striped Hairstreak
  • Viceroy
  • Wild Cherry Sphinx

Prunus serotina – Black Cherry

  • Tiger Swallowtail
  • Red-spotted Purple

Ptelea trifoliata – Common hoptree

  • Giant Swallowtail
  • Quercus spp.
  • Striped Hairstreak
  • Edward’s Hairstreak
  • Banded Hairstreak

Rhus spp. – Sumac

  • Spring/Summer Azure

Ribes spp. – Currant

  • Gray Comma
  • Rubus spp.
  • Sphinx Hairstreak

Salix spp. – Willow

  • Acadian Hairstreak
  • Compton Tortoiseshell
  • Mourning Cloak
  • Northern Finned Prominent
  • Red-spotted Purple
  • Striped Hairstreak
  • Viceroy
  • Sassafras albidum
  • Cecropia Moth
  • Imperial Moth
  • Io Moth
  • Spicebush Swallowtail
  • Smilax
  • Spotted Phosphila
  • Turbulent

Spiraea spp. – Spirea

  • Woolly Bear

Tilia spp. – Basswood

  • Question Mark

Viburnum spp.

  • Hummingbird Cloverwing
  • Vitis spp.
  • Grapeleaf Skeletoniter
  • Xanthoxylum spp.
  • Giant Swallowtail
  • Skipper spp.

© The Naturarian

Common Snowdrops ~ Galanthus nivalis ~ Blooming 3-23-2019

White snowdrop bulb bloomingWow! A Saturday post! 😉white snowdrop bulb blooming I usually like to collect
my photos on the weekends and post on the weekdays, HOWEVER, this was too awesome to wait!

I noticed this little donation from Mother Nature on the side of my house last year! I didn’t see any in the past, however, it was April 9th when I had discovered them last year. Way later than this year. I hope this is a good sign that things will progress a bit faster this year! Mr. Groundhog is hopefully right.

© The Naturarian

Mr. Robin Singing His Love Song

Let me translate:

Hello my Love, wherever you are!

I will sing until I find you.

I’ll bring you worms and seeds for our babies!

To you I will always be true!!

I’m so happy to see the Robins back! We hoomans like everything in order, which is why we had to place Spring on a calendar. In my opinion, Spring happens when nature tells us its happening!

Have a Happy Spring Everyone!!

Perennials for Midwestern Clay Soils

Most of the Midwestern area is comprised of clay soils. Never fear! This is a much better situation to have than sandy soils. Clay soils maintain more minerals and moisture than other soils.

Sometimes clay soils can be bad, such as in conditions where there are more problems than just the soil. If while digging in the soil, it looks blueish-black and smells kinda off, this is because of poor drainage and the smell is from rotting organisms. The area should be assessed for drainage problems before anything else is done.

If the clay is a redish-orange, this is perfect as the soil is holding all the minerals plants crave.

The soil should be mixed with a fair amount of compost to help perennials get a good start. If the soil is very compacted, some sand can be mixed it also. Be sure to surround the perennial bed with leaf compost to aid in nutrients getting to the roots and all the other benefits mulch does for plants.

  • For Trees and Shrubs for clay soils ~ CLICK HERE
Botanical Name Common Name Bloom Color Light
Achillea tomentosa woolly yarrow Jun-Jul yellow sun
Achillea filipendulina fernleaf yarrow Jun-Jul yellow sun
Arisaema spp. Jack-in-the-pulpit May-July green/purple shade
Aruncus dioicus goatsbeard Jun-Jul white ps/sh
Asclepias tuberosum butterflyweed Jun-Aug orange et al sun
Astilbe arendsii & var. false spirea, astilbe Jun-Aug white-pink-red ps/sh
Bergenia cordifolia heartleaf bergenia Apr-May pink ps/sh
Brunnera macrophylla Siberian bugloss Apr-May blue ps/sh
Echinacea purpurea purple coneflower Jul-Oct pink sun
Helenium autumnale
‘Moerheim beauty’
Sneezewort Jul-Sept bronze red sun/ps
Heliopsis scabra Heliopsis Jul-Aug yellow sun
Hemerocallis spp. daylily summer many sun/ps
Heuchera hyb. coral bells Jun-Aug white-pink-red sun/ps
Hibiscus spp. rose mallow Jul-Sept white-pink-red sun/ps
Hosta spp. plantain lily Jul-Aug lavender ps-sh
Houttuynia cordata ‘Chameleon’ houttuynia June white sun/ps
Iris sibirica, pseudo-
acorus, versicolor, etc.
Siberian and blue and yellowflag iris variable blue, violet, yellow et al. sun/ps
Liatris spicata gayfeather, blazing star Jul-Aug pinkish sun/ps
Liriope muscari lily turf Aug-Oct lavender-mauve-white ps/sun
Lysimachia spp. Yellow loosestrife, gooseneck loosestrife Jul-Sept yellow-white sun/ps
Perovskia atriplicifolia Russian sage Summer Lavender sun
Primula spp. primroses Mar-Jun many ps/sh
Rudbeckia fulgida ‘Goldsturm’ Goldsturm rudbeckia July-Sept yellow sun/ps
Salvia spp. salvia, sage Jul-Oct blue-violet sun/ps
Sedum spectabile var. stonecrop, sedum Aug-Oct pink-red sun
Tradescantia virginiana spiderwort Jun-Sept blue-violet-white sun/ps
Yucca filamentosa Adams’s needle summer white sun

© The Naturarian

35 Water Saving Methods in the Garden

  1. More plants die from over-watering than from under-watering. Be sure only to water plants when the ground is dry.
  2. Use sprinklers that toss big drops of water close to the ground. Smaller drops of water and mist can drift onto non-target areas or evaporate before they hit the ground.
  3. Water lawns during the early morning when temperatures and wind speed are the lowest. This reduces evaporation and waste. Watering in the evening can leave leaves wet all night, promoting disease problems. Better yet. DON’T WATER THE LAWN AT ALL!!! It doesn’t die, it goes dormant.
  4. Hand-water with a hose where possible. Homeowners who water with a handheld hose can use one-third less water outdoors than those who use automatic sprinklers.
  5. Use mulch to retain moisture in the soil. Mulch also helps reduce soil compaction from raindrops and helps control weeds that compete with landscape plants for water.
  6. Purchase a rain barrel and install below your gutter downspout and you’ll capture a little more than half a gallon of water for every square foot of roof during a one-inch rainfall—that means a 90-square-foot roof would completely fill a 55-gallon barrel! You can use that bounty to water your ornamental garden. Don’t use on your veggies, too many contaminants!!
  7. Plant smart. Xeriscape landscaping is a great way to design, install and maintain both your plants and irrigation system. Plant native and/or drought-tolerant grasses, ground covers, shrubs and trees. Once established, they do not need water as frequently and usually will survive a dry period without watering. It will save time, money and water.
  8. Position sprinklers so they’re not watering driveways and walkways.
  9. Adjust your lawnmower to cut grass to a height of 3 inches or more. Taller grass encourages deeper roots and shades the soil to reduce moisture loss.
  10. Start a compost pile or scrape food into the trash instead of running your garbage disposal*, which requires a lot of water to work properly. Use the compost to improve the quality and water holding capacity of your soil. *Save yourself from having the plumber out also!!
  11. Use a timer on hose-end sprinklers to avoid over-watering. 15-20 minutes is generally enough time.
  12. When the kids want to cool off, use the sprinkler in an area where your lawn needs it the most.
  13. Only water your lawn when needed. You can tell this by simply walking across your lawn. If you leave footprints, it’s time to water.
  14. While fertilizers promote plant growth, they also increase water consumption. Apply the minimum amount of fertilizer needed.
  15. Aerate your lawn. Punch holes in your lawn about six inches apart so water will reach the roots rather than run off the surface.
  16. Never put water down the drain when there may be another use for it such as cleaning or watering a plant or garden. For example, collect the water you use for rinsing fruits and vegetables, then reuse it to water houseplants; or when cleaning out fish tanks, give the nutrient-rich water to your plants.
  17. Install sprinklers that are the most water-efficient for each use. Micro, drip irrigation and soaker hoses are examples of water-efficient methods of irrigation.
  18. Outfit your hose with a shut-off nozzle that can be adjusted so water flows only as needed. When finished, turn the water off at the faucet instead of at the nozzle to avoid leaks.
  19. Use hose washers on water hoses and attachments to eliminate leaks.
  20. Do not leave sprinklers or hoses unattended. Your garden hose can pour out 600 gallons of water or more in only a few hours, so don’t leave the sprinkler running all day. Use a kitchen timer to remind yourself to turn it off.
  21. Verify that your home is leak free. Homes can have hidden water leaks that may be noticeable indoors, but outside can go undetected. Read your water meter before and after a two-hour period when no water is being used. If the meter does not read exactly the same, there is a leak.
  22. Avoid purchasing recreational water toys that require a constant stream of water.
  23. Go with splashes of color instead of mass plantings of annuals. Yes, they’re beautiful, but annuals (such as petunias and impatiens) typically require more water than most perennials.
  24. Rethink your lawn layout. If you live in a dry climate, you’ll need a lot of sprinkler activity to maintain a huge grassy swath. Consider replacing it with decorative gravel, which also reduces runoff.
  25. Collect shower/bath “warm-up” water in a bucket for use in watering plants
  26. Use water from dehumidifiers to water indoor and outdoor plants. You can also collect condensation water from air conditioning units to use for watering plants.
  27. Choose shrubs and groundcovers instead of turf for hard-to-water areas such as steep slopes and isolated strips.
  28. Plant in the fall when conditions are cooler and rainfall is more plentiful.
  29. If water runs off your lawn easily, split your watering time into shorter periods to allow for better absorption. A heavy layer of thatch can be hydrophobic, so de-thatching might help.
  30. Remember to check your sprinkler system valves periodically for leaks and keep the sprinkler heads in good shape. Check your timing devices regularly too to be sure they operate properly.
  31. Water your plants deeply but less frequently to encourage deep root growth and drought tolerance. I recommend 1′ of water per week.
  32. Learn how to shut off your automatic watering system in case it malfunctions or you get an unexpected rain.
  33. Remember to weed your lawn and garden regularly. Weeds compete with other plants for nutrients, light, and water.
  34. Wash your car and pets on the lawn, and you’ll water your lawn at the same time.
  35. Use porous materials for walkways and patios to keep water in your yard and prevent wasteful runoff.

reduce-your-use-e1518218433850.jpg

© The Naturarian

Vines Growing on Trees – Good or Bad?

Trumpet vine on tree

Trumpet vine on tree

English ivy and other evergreen vines can cause problems in trees, along with fast growing deciduous

(lose their leaves in winter) vines like Kudzu. However, not all vines do harm to trees.

Problem Vines:

  • English ivy (Hedera helix)
  • Boston ivy (Parthenocissus tricuspidata )
  • Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica)
  • Chinese/Japanese wisteria (Wisteria spp.)
  • Kudzu (Pueraria spp.)
  • Euonymus  (spp.)

blooming trumpet vine

These are just a few of the bad vines to allow to grow on trees. Evergreen and fast growing vines should be avoided or removed if possible. All vines can cause structural problems – The added weight can break branches along with the vine catching more wind, snow or ice than the tree is used to receiving, possibly causing it to topple. Some vines that start as a groundcover (such as ivy), form a dense mat covering the tree’s buttress or root flare. The vine often causes leaves and debris to pile up against the root collar and traps moisture against the trunk and root flare. This can cause many fungal and bacterial type diseases, as well as potential structural decay at the base of the tree. Deciduous vines aren’t necessarily any better than their evergreen counterparts. They, too have the capability of shading out the tree’s leaves, adding weight and even girdling (strangling) the tree’s limbs and trunk. Some common vines in this category; Chinese/Japanese wisteria, trumpet vine and pipevine. Trumpet vine and pipevine are native to the Midwest and usually confine their growth to trees at the edge of woods or those that are standing alone. Therefore, they don’t represent a threat to the forest overall, but they can take their toll on individual trees. It comes to personal preference if you want to go down this road.

Leave Them Be Vines:

Vines that are smaller and grow more slowly that can usually be allowed to grow on trees.

  • Clematis species
  • Virgin’s bower (native clematis – Clematis virginiana)
  • Crossvine (Bignonia capreolata)
  • Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quincifolia)
  • Carolina moonseed (Cocculus carolinus)
  • Maypop / Purple Passion Flower (Passiflora incarnata)
  • Poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans)

Although Virginia creeper and crossvine can grow quickly and get large, I’ve never seen any tree so overgrown with them as to pose a problem even though crossvine can be evergreen. The clematis vines (including the native), Carolina moonseed and maypop climb by twining, however do not strangle the tree. Crossvine, Virginia creeper and poison ivy climb by using their aerial roots. People often confuse Virginia creeper and poison ivy. Just remember this little ditty:

“Leaves of three, leave it be. Leaves of five, leave it alive (or let it thrive).”

And before anyone jumps down my throat about the poison ivy, I would like to remind everyone that the Audubon Society considers poison ivy to be one of the top food sources for song birds, with about 63 species feeding on the berries. It’s so important, that nature has essential plant foods for birds. However, I digress. … Should you decide to let a smaller, slower-growing vine grow up a living tree, be prepared to manage the vine by cutting it back to keep it confined to the trunk and not allow it to grow on the limbs which could add weight and change the tree’s center of gravity as well as shade the tree’s leaves. Make sure that fallen leaves and other plant debris don’t collect at the bottom of the vine against the host tree or diseases may follow. Should a tree that is hosting a vine show signs of stress, the vine will have to go for the health of the tree. One last thought. Dead trees that are left standing (snags) can be used for vines. Just remember that this arrangement will be temporary, as the snag will eventually decay to the point of falling. Just make sure it won’t hit anything when it comes down.

© The Naturarian

Giant Leopard Moth ~ Hypercompe scribonia

catapillar

The Giant Leopard Moth or Eyed Tiger Moth (Hypercompe scribonia) various forests having host plants on which the caterpillars forage extensively. Gardens, farmlands, woodlands and public areas can be frequented by them.

Females emit pheromones that are caught by the antenna of the males that successfully locates the female for mating. When mating is over, the female gets on with the process of laying eggs.

giant leopard moth

After the eggs are laid, the larvae come out of them which start feeding on the leaves where they emerge out of the eggs. As caterpillars, they assume the wooly bear appearance and go into hibernation for some time during the winters. But it might as well wake up for light foraging on milder days in the temperate regions. After sleeping over winter, it weaves cocoon from its body. It becomes the pupa after molting in the wake of spring. In the next few weeks, it transforms into an adult moth.

Host plants for larvae: cherries, plantains, violets, honeysuckles, magnolia, cabbage, sunflower, lilac, dandelion, pokeweed, willow, maples and other broad-leaved plants.

The dorsal aspect of the abdomen is iridescent, blue-black with orange lateral spots or occasionally orange with large blue-black spots. The legs also have iridescent, blue-black setae.

When threatened, adults ‘play possum’ and curl their abdomen to display their bright orange stripes. They also secrete a droplet of yellow, acrid fluid from the thoracic glands that is bitter tasting.

© The Naturarian