Tag: illinois

Why Native Plants Rock – Part 2 of 4

Dutchman's breeches white flower
Dicentra cucullaria – Dutchman’s breeches

OUR NATIVE PLANT SPECIES

Encouraging native plant use in the landscape can help the community save local native species, help with water related issues, and reduce pollution. Using native plants will help correct the problems connected with compaction and soil health.

Native plants can be defined as being indigenous or occurring naturally in a given geographic area and not introduced to that area by humans. When it comes to native plants, the “geographical area” is a 50-mile radius. The distinction between native and non-native species is important because native species have generally adapted and evolved with the competing species, predators, and diseases of an area over many thousands of years. Native species are therefore generally in reasonable ecological balance with their associates and competitors, and have pests, predators, or diseases that limit their abundance.

chart showing how deep our native plant roots goThe Lake County area was part of the tall grass prairie lands, and the soils are the richest of all the soil orders. The reason for this is native plants have extensive root systems which improve the ability of the soil to infiltrate water and withstand wet or erosive conditions. When comparing root systems of non-native to native plants, the differences are obvious. Most native plants roots are 2-3 times longer and more fibrous than non-natives are. The root systems of a native plant are on an average 7′ feet deep, with some reaching up to 15′ feet. Because roots reach these depths, the soil becomes very rich with nutrients at lower levels.

Soil taxonomists have assigned the name “Mollisol” (soil order) to this type of soil, characterized as having a dark-colored organic surface layer of approximately 1”-3” (O horizon), and an extensive next layer of dark loamy soil (A horizon) from 3’ – 18” down.

A homeowner can reduce their time input, money, water use and pollution output by just reducing the lawn size of their property and adding native plant gardens. After a native plant garden establishes itself (1 – 3 years), the maintenance time involved plummets. More garden areas mean less lawn areas, and all the maintenance requirements of it. The cost of a native garden can be very affordable, as seeds can cost as little as $30 covering a 500 square feet area. After removal of the lawn (sod remover rental of $48/day), installation is as easy as a disk tiller (rental for the day $32), some hard work, and the seed. This method is for a patient person, as some flowering, native plants (forbs = flowering plants) can take up to 3 years to bloom. Most homeowners would like to have something to look at quickly, so mature plants would be best, or another possibility is a mix of plugs (immature plants) and seed.

The newly seeded/planted area will need extra water to germinate/get started and throughout the first season. However, after a native garden becomes established, the plants can withstand most droughts, only needing a small amount of water in desperate times. This saves time, money and resources.

Lastly, native plants do not need any commercial fertilizer, which pollutes the environment. Natives are happy to receive compost as a method to get vitamins. Compost application can be as easy as leaving vegetation and leaf residues to over-winter, taking free manure from any of the horse farms nearby (remember to dig deep for the good stuff!!) or from your compost bin. Many natives, mostly of the wetland type, can actually extract toxins from the soil, mitigating damage done from commercial fertilizers.

Stay tuned! Tomorrow we’ll discuss some ‘lawn substitutions’ for those die-hard lawn fans.

© The Naturarian

13 Illinois Toads and Frogs

Here in the Midwest, you may not be able to see the flowers blooming yet, but you can hear the local residence waking from their long, winter slumber.

Vernal pools have started to form from the melted snow and early spring rainfall that the ground can’t uptake because of the frost line or excessive saturation. These vernal pools (also called ephemeral, temporary, or seasonal ponds) are where many frogs, salamanders and newts call home. These pools provide protection from predators that live in permanent bodies of water including fish, invertebrate predators, and even other amphibians, such as American Bullfrogs and Northern Green Frogs.

Frogs & toads are pretty cool creatures that can survive winters by hibernating and by having antifreeze run through their veins! Terrestrial frogs normally hibernate on land. American toads (Bufo americanus) and other frogs that are good diggers burrow deep into the soil, safely below the frost line. Aquatic frogs such as the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) and the leopard frog (Rana pipiens) typically hibernate underwater. Some frogs, such as the wood frog (Rana sylvatica) and the spring peeper (Hyla crucifer), are not skilled at digging and seek out deep cracks and crevices in logs or rocks, or just dig down as far as they can in the leaf litter.

Most frogs have amazing proteins in their blood, called nucleating proteins, that cause the water in their blood to freeze first. This ice sucks most of the water out of the frog’s cells dehydrating them. Then the frog’s liver starts making large amounts of glucose (a type of sugar) which fills into the cells and plumps them up. The concentrated sugar solution helps avoid additional water from being pulled out of the frog’s cells, which can cause death.

Right now, the majority of calls I hear are from the Western Chorus Frog. I think they sound like the noise made by running your finger over the teeth of a comb. Frogs and toads make many different calls that all sound alike, however mating calls are specific, which are what you will hear in the soundtracks. This is the easiest way to ID frogs, as seeing them at night might nearly be impossible.

Frogs of Illinois:

Western_chorus_frog
Western chorus frog

Western Chorus Frog – Pseudacris triseriata

Wood frog
Wood Frog

Wood Frog – Lithobates sylvaticus

American Toad
American Toad

American Toad – Anaxyrus americanus

Bull Frog
Bull Frog

Bull Frog – Lithobates catesbeianus

Tree Frog
Copes Grey Tree Frog

Copes Grey Tree Frog – Hyla chrysoscelis

Cricket Frog
Cricket Frog

Cricket Frog – Acris crepitans

frog
Eastern Grey Tree Frog

Eastern Grey Tree Frog – Hyla versicolor

Fowlers toad
Fowlers Toad

Fowlers Toad – Anaxyrus fowleri syn. Bufo fowleri 

Green Frog
Green Frog

Green Frog – Lithobates clamitans

Green Frog SOS Call

Northern Leopard Frog
Northern Leopard Frog

Northern Leopard Frog – Lithobates pipiens

Frog
Pickerel Frog

Pickerel Frog – Lithobates palustris

Plaines Frog
Plains Leopard Frog

Plains Leopard Frog – Lithobates blairi

Spring peeper frog
Spring Peeper Frog

Spring Peeper – Pseudacris crucifer

This one has to be my favorite. It’s just so cute!!

Credit: IL D N R for the Frog Calls!

© The Naturarian

Study Guide for the Illinois Pesticide Exam

A few landscaping cohorts requested my study notes from when I took the Illinois Pesticide License test. These notes specifically address pesticide formulas and mixtures, something I thought the study guides lacked in. Although I did buy the study guides (available in the links below), I always look for additional (FREE) information online. I feel there was a shortage of good information that wasn’t just repeating what the guide said. The notes I made below are to be used like flash cards. You will need to know the information ahead of time, these notes just reinforce the already learned information.

Remember!! Even if you’re organic, you’re required to be pesticide licensed in your respective state.

The University of Illinois Pesticide Safety Education Program is the site to visit for all of the information required to get licensed.

Click here for the Illinois State Study courses from the Illinois Extension – Courses

Click here for a printable .pdf version of the notes below – Pesticide Test Notes

PESTICIDE FORMULAS

DRY FORMULAS

SP = SOLUBLE POWDERS – Agitate to form a solution. Not many available as many don’t dissolve in H2O.

WP = WETABLE POWDERS – Contains wetting/dispersion agents + strong agitation form a suspension. Abrasive to pumps. Anti-foam adjuvants may help.

DF & WDG = DRY FLOWABLES & WATER-DISPERSIBLE GRANUALS – Formulated into a granule instead of a powder. Forms a suspension requiring strong agitation. Abrasive to pumps.

G = GRANULES – Applied directly. Most often used for soil treatment. H2O may need to be applied for activation.

P or PS = PELLETS – Usually larger than granules & more uniform in shape. Rat/insect baits.

D = DUSTS – Low % of active ingredient. Carrier of talc/clay/chalk. Apply directly. Watch for drift.

WET FORMULAS

E & EC = EMULSIFIABLE CONCENTRATES – Active ingredient in oil & w/mild agitation forms an emulsion mixture. Not abrasive to pumps, but may harm rubber or paint. Hazardous as drift & dermaly as it’s easily absorbed. Anti-foam adjuvants may help.

M & ME = MICRO-ENCAPSULATED – Active ingredient in plastic coated capsule suspended in liquid. Time-released & long residual activity. Constant agitation. Careful around beehives.

F & FL & L = FLOWABLES OR LIQUIDS – (Pre-suspended WP’s) Less inhalation hazard. Forms a suspension requiring moderate agitation. Abrasive to pumps.

S = SOLUTIONS – A true solution. No agitation, residue or abrasion.

OTHER

A = AEROSOLS – Low % of active ingredients & ready to use. Under pressure.

B = POISON BAITS – Active ingredient mixed w/food or H2O. Usually in a bait box, for safety.

FUMIGANTS – Produce gas from a liquid. Need special license.

ADJUVANTS = A chemical that modifies or enhances a pesticide’s properties. NOT regulated, be careful.

DRIFT REDUCTION ADDITIVES = Increases droplet size to reduce drift.

STICKERS = Increases adherence of chemical increasing persistence.

SURFACTANT = “Surface-active agents” reduces the surface tension in H2O. Use on waxy or hairy leaves.

PENETRANTS = Oil (petroleum or veggie) that aids penetration of foliage.

BUFFERING AGENTS = Balances pH of carrier to keep pesticides active.

COMPATIBILITY AGENTS = Allows effective mixing of 2 or more pesticides or w/fertilizer.

ANTI-FOAMING AGENTS = Reduces foam in EC or WP formulas.

 

PESTICIDE MIXTURES

CHEMICAL INCOMPATIBILITY = An unnoticeable reaction of mixed pesticides, noticed when things go bad.

ANTAGONISM = Decreased activity. Never desirable.

SYNERGISM = Increased activity. Can be used to your advantage.

PHYSICAL INCOMPATIBILITY = Caused by improper mixing, inadequate agitations, lack of stable emulsifiers, or hard H2O.

 

TANK MIXTURES
Label should have mixing order, but if not:

CARRIER – Fill tank ¼ to ½ full.
COMPATIBILITY, BUFFERING, or ANTI-FOAMING AGENTS.
DRIFT REDUCTION ADDITIVE – READ LABEL – May need to be added early or late in mix.
WETABLE POWDERS
DRY FLOWABLES & WATER-DISPERABLE GRANULES
FLOWABLE & MICRO-ENCAPSULATED
EMULSIFIABLE CONCENTRATES
SOLUTIONS
SOLUBLE POWDERS
SPRAY MODIFIERS – PENETRANTS & SURFACTANTS – Pre-slurry if using dry ingredients.
CARRIER – Fill tank to desired level.

**Agitate mixture throughout mixing process & application.

TIMING OF APPLICATION

EPP = EARLY PRE-PLANT – Applied several weeks B/4 a crop is planted.

PPI = PRE-PLANT INCORPORATION – Applied prior to planting, worked into soil.

PrE = PRE-EMERGENCE – Applied during or soon after planting, but B/4 weeds emerge.

PoE = POST-EMERGENCE – Applied to foliage.

© The Naturarian

Mr. Robin Singing His Love Song

Let me translate:

Hello my Love, wherever you are!

I will sing until I find you.

I’ll bring you worms and seeds for our babies!

To you I will always be true!!

I’m so happy to see the Robins back! We hoomans like everything in order, which is why we had to place Spring on a calendar. In my opinion, Spring happens when nature tells us its happening!

Have a Happy Spring Everyone!!

How to Read the Midwestern Landscape

Understanding what you see and observe in the landscape and knowing key indicator plants (axiophytes) aid in identifying each Illinois region community. Learning a few characteristics of each area can help with this identification.

Each area has its separate restoration challenges, however the wetland communities are the most frequently restored regions, followed by prairie, savanna, and woodland, respectively.

Wetlands

Some of the main, topography indications of a wetland are:

  • Standing water during growing season
  • Drift lines
  • Watermarks
  • Sediment deposits

Sometimes because of drain tiles, dams/dikes, or channeling of streams, this might not be as reliable of an indication.

Conducting a soil test is the next test. Wetlands have a hydric soil characteristic described as one or more of the following:

  • predominantly peats or mucks
  • have bluish-gray coloring
  • contain dark streaks of organic material
  • include decomposing plant material

Plant indicators include cattails, bulrushes, cord grass, sphagnum moss, bald cypress, willows, sedges, rushes, arrowheads, and water plantains. Additionally, several types of oak, tamaracks, and pine trees occur in wetlands.

Wetland restoration relies heavily on the hydrology of the location. Generally, when natural water patterns return to an area, the usually, highly viable seed banks of the wetland overwhelm invasives. This makes for the easiest restoration, as most invasives cannot thrive in the wet conditions. Volo Bog is an example of how the returning of hydrology (breaking of drain tiles), along with overseeding, can restore a wetland.

Prairies

prairie land with yellow flowers

Identifying a prairie area should begin with an observation of the layout. Prairies are flat or gently undulating, dominated mostly with grasses, and generally treeless. Some of the plant indicator species include (but not limited to) big bluestem, little bluestem, Indian grass, switch grass, black oak, round-head bush-clover, butterfly milkweed, lead plant, heath aster, grey headed sunflower, compass plant, and cup plant.

Prairie soils (Mollisol) are very rich in nutrients. This is why many prairies are destroyed to grow other crops.

One challenge of prairie restoration lies in the condition of the site when presented for restoration. This will dictate the amount of time and money needed for the task. Another dilemma is the ability to burn. Many smaller restorations near communities that have banned any type of burning, must use alternate methods for restoration, which may delay the re-establishment for years.

Savannas

savanna land with wildflowers and trees

Savannas are recognized by grassland-like features, with scattered trees that are few enough in number not to affect light penetration to the ground.  Indicator plants consist of: yellow & purple giant hyssop, tall anemone, purple milkweed, prairie brome, cream wild indigo, woodland boneset, oaks, and Jacob’s ladder, to name a few.

Savanna’s restoration issues also lie with ability to burn, but time is also a huge factor. Reconstruction may require the planting of oaks and other native trees, which take years to mature.

Woodland

wooden bridge in woodland area

Woodland is an area with dotted trees where the portion of the land surface covered by the crowns is more than 30% (open woodland) but less than 60% (forest). Indicator species can include; oaks, shagbark hickory, black walnut, bitternut hickory, bottlebrush grass, woodland phlox, elm-leaved goldenrod, cut-leaf coneflower, brown-eyed susan.

The main challenge of restoring woodlands is time. Canopies need time to develop, and the understory elements might need to develop later because of this. Many times money and long-term dedication are the biggest hurdles.

© The Naturarian

Prairie Fires – Cleansing the Midwestern Landscape

prairie fire with person in fire gear

Fire has played an instrumental role in affecting many of the prairies in the Midwest.

Historically, tall grass prairies are shaped by one of three types of disturbances;

  • Drought
  • Animal grazing
  • Wildfires

There are many misconceptions that if the prairie (or other natural area) was left alone, it would revert to native. In the absence of disturbance, prairies often revert to either poor quality grasslands or thorn woodlands.

Native American Indians were keen on this information, observing what Mother Nature did naturally to herself to cleanse her skin, fire. They learned that fire removed the thorny brush, which gave access to animals and hunters alike. The open areas were also available to grazing animals and native plants that equal medical supplies and food to the Indians.

Many people aren’t happy about the burning that takes place in our area. They state they have allergies and the smoke drives them from their homes. Prescription burns are actually quite predictable and knowledgeable burn coordinators can adapt during the small percentages of uncertainty and plan accordingly so smoke avoids entering inhabited areas. A prescription burn coordinator is required to know the ecology, natural history, fire behavior, fire effects, and suppression techniques for the area.

I have a degree in Natural Areas Management and have been trained by the Chicago Wilderness Group as a Burn Crew Member. I’ve only enjoyed the privilege of three burns in my career, but I’ve always had pyro tendencies… Remember, I’ve had chemistry sets since a young age. Mom only let me play out in the yard, to keep the explosions/fires/mess outdoors. I didn’t think there was a profession that actually paid you to start fires… If I had the opportunity to do this full time, I would!

A brief description of how a burn takes place from planning to completion:

  • An area is chosen to burn
  • Timing (spring or fall)
  • Management goals and existing conditions are recorded
  • Plan is implemented, permits pulled, municipalities informed
  • When correct weather patterns are predicted, which include; moisture levels, wind, load levels (how much is expected to burn)
  • Crew availability
  • Burn takes place
  • Area is monitored and information recorded for future management goals.

prairie fire

Simply, to describe what happens during burn, there are two general jobs on the crew, excluding management; the fire starters and the fire stoppers called ‘moppers’. Everyone on the burn crew gets a job, equipment related to the job and who to report to, or the ‘Buddy System’. Burns can be conducted with a very small crew, however my county sends emails to prospective certified burn members that can volunteer for the day to help. Barely a burn goes by without at least a few volunteers.

Fire starters receive a fuel-dripping type device to start the fire. Generally, the LEAST experienced crew member gets this job, as this job has the least chance to screw-up. I guess the crew member could fail to start the fire… But, it’s stopping the fire that is the hard part. Fire starters start their burning in the pattern that has been determined to work for the area. Depending on the terrain and firebreak options (rivers, roads, mountains, already burned areas, etc.) most burns either burn into themselves, i.e. burn the edges first and the fire burns itself inward towards the center or it can end at the respective firebreak.

prairie controlled burn fire

The burn needs to be monitored and managed. Most of the time tall grass prairie fire is only a couple of feet high, just creeping along at a slow walk, other times (cattails especially) the flames can leap two stories high.

The mopper’s equipment can consists of either a backpack tank of water, rakes, or ‘a-mudflap-on-a-stick’. Most likely, I don’t need to explain the water-tank or the rake… The mudflap-on-a-stick is exactly what you are envisioning. It is used to blot the fire out along the fire line. There is a technique in using this piece of equipment. Slapping it down causes a gust of air and fans the fire, obviously not the desired outcome. The flap should be placed on the fire line (the burning foliage) and dabbed along to snuff it out. Fire is more delicate than some think, if one of the three ingredients for fire is removed (air, fuel, spark), no more fire.

During the fire, there is one hard fast rule of safety. STAY IN THE BLACK! The BLACK is the already burned areas. Fire can’t go where there is no fuel.

I’d love to develop a cologne called, ‘Campfire’. I looove that smell. =-)

 

© The Naturarian

Know, Know, Know Your Oaks


I was taught this song in my college trees class. The student that shared it with the class said she had learned it Girl Scouts.

There are several species or types of oaks. The White Oak is the state tree of Illinois, among other states. Sing this song to the tune of “Row, row, row your boat” to try to identify what type of oak you are looking at. The branching structures will match the song.

Know, know know your oaks,

Look at how they grow

Red oak, White oak, Pin oak, Bur oak

Red Oak (make a ‘V’ with your arms above your head)

White Oak (hold your arms straight out from your shoulders)

white oak

Pin Oak (make an upside down “V” with your arms pointing toward the ground)

pin oak

Bur Oak (make your arms twist in different directions)

Bur oak

And the acorns down below! (wiggle your fingers and point to the ground)

© The Naturarian

 

Trees and Shrubs For Midwestern Clay Soils

Most of the Midwestern area is comprised of clay soils. Never fear! This is a much better situation to have than sandy soils. Clay soils maintain more minerals and moisture than other soils.

Sometimes clay soils can be bad, such as in conditions where there are more problems than just the soil. If while digging in the soil, it looks blueish-black and smells kinda off, this is because of poor drainage and the smell is from rotting organisms. The area should be assessed for drainage problems before anything else is done.

If the clay is a redish-orange, this is perfect as the soil is holding all the minerals plants crave.

With regards to planting woody plants, be sure to plant these correctly and never lower than the top of the roots of the rootball. If you’re at all concerned about the clay content of your soil, plant you woody plant a bit higher. Trust me, they will love you for it!!

Trees for Clay Soils

Scientific NameCommon NameGrow Zone
Abies balsameaBalsam fir3
Abies concolorWhite fir4
Acer freemaniiFreeman maple4
Acer ginnalaAmur or ginnala maple3
Acer platanoidesNorway maple4
Acer rubrumRed maple3
 Acer saccharinumSilver maple3
Alnus glutinosaEuropean alder4
Betula nigraRiver birch4
Carpinus carolinianaBlue beech4
Carya cordiformisBitternut hickory4
Carya ovataShagbark hickory4
Celtis occidentalisCommon hackberry2
Crataegus speciesHawthorn3-4
Fraxinus nigraBlack ash3
Fraxinus pennsylvanicaGreen ash3
Ginkgo bilobaGinkgo4
Gleditsia triacanthosCommon honeylocust4
Gymnocladus dioicusKentucky coffeetree4
Juglans cinereaButternut4
Juglans nigraBlack walnut4
Larix deciduaEuropean larch4
Larix laricinaTamarack2
Malus speciesApple, crabapple3
Phellodendron amurenseAmur corktree4
Picea abiesNorway spruce4
Picea glauca var. densataBlack Hills spruce4
Pinus nigraAustrian pine4
Pinus strobusWhite pine3
Pinus sylvestrisScots pine3
Pinus ponderosaPonderosa pine4
Populus speciesAspen, cottonwood2
Pyrus speciesPear4-5
Quercus bicolorSwamp white oak4
Quercus macrocarpaBur oak3
Salix speciesWillow2
Syringa reticulataJapanese tree lilac4
Tilia speciesLinden, basswood3
Ulmus speciesElm4

Shrubs for Clay Soils

Scientific NameCommon NameGrow Zone
Amelanchier speciesServiceberry4
Aronia melanocarpaChokeberry3
Caragana arborescensSiberian peashrub3
Cephalanthus occidentalisButtonbush4
Cornus albaTatarian dogwood3
Cornus alternifoliaPagoda dogwood4
Cornus racemosaGrey dogwood3
Cornus sericeaRed osier dogwood3
Diervilla loniceraDwarf bush-honeysuckle3
Elaeagnus commutataSilverberry2
Euonymus alatusBurning bush3
Forsythia x ‘Meadowlark’‘Meadowlark’ forsythia3
Forsythia x ‘Northern Sun’‘Northern Sun’ forsythia3
Hamamelis virginianaWitch hazel4
Ilex verticillataWinterberry4
Juniperus species (most)Juniper3
Physocarpus opulifoliusCommon ninebark2
Potentilla FruticosaPotentilla2
Rhus speciesSumac2
Ribes alpinumAlpine currant2
Ribes odoratumClove currant2
Rosa rugosaRugosa rose2
Salix speciesWillow2
Sambucus canadensisAmerican elderberry3
Spiraea speciesSpirea3-4
Symphoricarpos albusWhite snowberry3
Syringa speciesLilac2
Thuja occidentalisArborvitae, white cedar3
Viburnum dentatumArrowwood viburnum3
Viburnum lentagoNannyberry viburnum2
Viburnum opulusEuropean cranberry bush3
Viburnum sargentiiSargent viburnum4
Viburnum trilobumHighbush cranberry bush2

© The Naturarian

Perennials for Midwestern Clay Soils

Most of the Midwestern area is comprised of clay soils. Never fear! This is a much better situation to have than sandy soils. Clay soils maintain more minerals and moisture than other soils.

Sometimes clay soils can be bad, such as in conditions where there are more problems than just the soil. If while digging in the soil, it looks blueish-black and smells kinda off, this is because of poor drainage and the smell is from rotting organisms. The area should be assessed for drainage problems before anything else is done.

If the clay is a redish-orange, this is perfect as the soil is holding all the minerals plants crave.

The soil should be mixed with a fair amount of compost to help perennials get a good start. If the soil is very compacted, some sand can be mixed it also. Be sure to surround the perennial bed with leaf compost to aid in nutrients getting to the roots and all the other benefits mulch does for plants.

  • For Trees and Shrubs for clay soils ~ CLICK HERE
Botanical Name Common Name Bloom Color Light
Achillea tomentosa woolly yarrow Jun-Jul yellow sun
Achillea filipendulina fernleaf yarrow Jun-Jul yellow sun
Arisaema spp. Jack-in-the-pulpit May-July green/purple shade
Aruncus dioicus goatsbeard Jun-Jul white ps/sh
Asclepias tuberosum butterflyweed Jun-Aug orange et al sun
Astilbe arendsii & var. false spirea, astilbe Jun-Aug white-pink-red ps/sh
Bergenia cordifolia heartleaf bergenia Apr-May pink ps/sh
Brunnera macrophylla Siberian bugloss Apr-May blue ps/sh
Echinacea purpurea purple coneflower Jul-Oct pink sun
Helenium autumnale
‘Moerheim beauty’
Sneezewort Jul-Sept bronze red sun/ps
Heliopsis scabra Heliopsis Jul-Aug yellow sun
Hemerocallis spp. daylily summer many sun/ps
Heuchera hyb. coral bells Jun-Aug white-pink-red sun/ps
Hibiscus spp. rose mallow Jul-Sept white-pink-red sun/ps
Hosta spp. plantain lily Jul-Aug lavender ps-sh
Houttuynia cordata ‘Chameleon’ houttuynia June white sun/ps
Iris sibirica, pseudo-
acorus, versicolor, etc.
Siberian and blue and yellowflag iris variable blue, violet, yellow et al. sun/ps
Liatris spicata gayfeather, blazing star Jul-Aug pinkish sun/ps
Liriope muscari lily turf Aug-Oct lavender-mauve-white ps/sun
Lysimachia spp. Yellow loosestrife, gooseneck loosestrife Jul-Sept yellow-white sun/ps
Perovskia atriplicifolia Russian sage Summer Lavender sun
Primula spp. primroses Mar-Jun many ps/sh
Rudbeckia fulgida ‘Goldsturm’ Goldsturm rudbeckia July-Sept yellow sun/ps
Salvia spp. salvia, sage Jul-Oct blue-violet sun/ps
Sedum spectabile var. stonecrop, sedum Aug-Oct pink-red sun
Tradescantia virginiana spiderwort Jun-Sept blue-violet-white sun/ps
Yucca filamentosa Adams’s needle summer white sun

© The Naturarian