Tag: IPM

The Epic Battle Against the Asparagus Beetle

asparagus
Asparagus

Asparagus.

Mother Nature sure knew what she was doing when she created asparagus.

Asparagus is low in calories & sodium. It is a good source of calcium, magnesium, zinc, folic acid, protein, vitamins B, A, C, E, & K, rutin, thiamin, fiber, potassium, riboflavin, iron, phosphorus, copper, niacin, manganese and selenium, as well as chromium, a trace mineral that heightens the ability of insulin to transfer glucose from the bloodstream in cells.The amino acid asparagine derives its name from asparagus, as the asparagus plant is rich in this compound.

I’m not sure what she was thinking when she whipped up the asparagus beetle.

asperagus beetle eggs

These little guys are my bane. All in all they don’t do that much damage to my plants, but I hover over my plants like a circling vulture. I use IPM (Integrated pest management), meaning that I hunt and squish bugs! I can’t say that I am pesticide free, but most issues can be taken care of without chemicals. IMO no chemical action is need for these beetles. But, if you must, I’ve sprayed neem oil on the eggs after harvesting time, which is sometime late June (soon). There are normally 2 cycles of insects here, but there could be more.

The easiest way to catch these buggers is to have a cup of water ready. As you move towards them, they move to the other side of the stalk (quite funny to watch!) Put the cup under them & wave your hand near them. Their instinct is to drop to the ground, but instead, the cup of water will catch them. The larva and eggs aren’t as easy to remove. It’s the same method I use for typing… Hunt & peck.

spotted asperagus beetle

There are two kinds of asparagus beetle, the common asparagus beetle, Crioceris asparagi & the spotted asparagus beetle, Crioceris duodecimpunctata. Both feed on the tender young tips of the spear, but the spotted beetles larva tend to only eat the berries. How nice of them! =-)

© The Naturarian

How to Get Rid of Euonymus Scale

euonymus scale

Edward L. Manigault, Clemson University Donated Collection, Bugwood.org – See more at: http://www.forestryimages.org/browse/detail.cfm?imgnum=1225115#sthash.fE97Hbiu.dpuf
Edwar

Euonymus scale (Unaspis euonymi) is a pest that is around all year, especially on groundcover euonymus. Treatment should be done when the crawlers emerge, which is around the early part of June, although it may be a bit later this year. Male adult scales are white, and females are dark brown and are shaped like an oyster shell. Euonymus scale overwinters as a mated (pregnant) female on the plant stems. Eggs develop beneath the scale and hatch during late spring.

Hatch times coincide with the blooming of:

  • Chionanthus virginicus – White Fringe Tree
  • Crataegus crusgalli –  Cockspur Hawthorn
  • Cornus alternifolia – Alternateleaf Dogwood
  • Syringa vilrosa – Lilac
  • Catalpa speciosa

Management: Pesticides won’t help until the crawlers emerge, but if the population is heavy now, prune out the infested branches to reduce the number of scales. Then, when it is time to use an insecticide it will be more effective. Since there has been a lot of winter damage on ground cover euonymus, pruning will be required to remove the dead branches and take care of two problems at the same time.

Horticulture soap* or oil will work to kill the crawlers.

*Please remember that you can’t make horticulture soap out of today’s dish soaps. Yes, back in the day, when soap was manufactured out of fats, it could be done. However, now they are all detergents, lacking the fat factor necessary to kill the insect.

© The Naturarian

Don’t Let Crabgrass Get You Crabby!

Crabgrass (Digitaria sp.) is one of the most widespread grassy weeds found in Midwestern lawns. Crabgrass flourishes in full sunlight, high temperatures and can easily out compete common cool-season grasses, like our Kentucky Bluegrass. Crabgrass is a summer annual, which germinates in the spring, grows through the summer and dies with the first hard frost. They produce a tremendous amount of seeds in the mid to late summer when the days start to shorten. These seeds not only ensure next year’s crop of weeds, they can also remain dormant in the soil for many years before germinating. Generally, if you have crabgrass in your lawn, it will be there next year, also. Horticulturists say, “One year’s seed equals seven years weeding.” Gasp!!!

forsythia blooming yellow
Forsythia

The easiest way to take care of crabrass is to take care of it during the spring season, rather than take care of it later on in the season. A well-timed application of a ‘pre-emergent’ is what you’ll need. Just as the name states, a pre-emergent prevents seeds from germination. Killing it before it emerges. Be aware that you can’t use this type of herbicide if you are planning to or have just recently seeded your lawn, as it will kill those seeds also. Timing is critical, as the herbicide does not last long and must coincide with the seed wanting to germinate.

Crabgrass seed will not germinate until the soil temperatures are 55F degrees at the one-inch level. The Illinois State Water Survey reports soil temperature at the four-inch depth at St. Charles reporting station was 47.5F degrees on April 16. The soil temperature at one-inch will be slightly higher. This suggests Northern Illinois is approaching the right conditions for application. Next week the weathermen say it will be warm and that will help the soil temperatures progress. North Americans can go to this site for application timing. Or the indicator plant that can be used for application timing is ‘forsythia is in bloom’. Late April (now) into early May will most likely be our target for 2019.

© The Naturarian

Identifying Diplodia Tip Blight in Pines

Diplodia tip blight is a disease of pines in the Midwest area and the treatment window will soon be upon us. This disease is caused by the fungus Sphaeropsis sapinea and highly effects two-needled pines such as Austrian, scotch, mugo and red, but can infect all evergreens. Here, our Austrian Pines are the most affected and are no longer planted here.

pine with blight on needles

The disease will eventually kill the tree, but can take a long time, without treatment (5 years-ish). Although treatments can slow the process, careful thought is needed in a budgetary sense. The tree will begin to have die-back (larger branch death) and will require regular pruning to be aesthetically pleasing… if that’s even possible. Treatments can be costly, worse-case ineffective, if not applied correctly. The cost of removal will go up as the tree gets larger or becomes more hazardous to fell. In the end, depending where the tree is located, along with the ‘value’ placed on the tree, it may be more cost-effective to remove the tree and replace it as soon as diagnosed.

blight on pine needle

The Diplodia fungus overwinters on infected needles, cones, and within the bark of twigs. Spores are released from spring through late fall. New shoots are infected during the spring from bud break to the end of the growing season. The cones are infected during the spring of the second season, as it takes two years for cones to mature.

Spread of the disease is by the splashing of water, be it rain or over-head irrigation. Because this disease tends to overwinter and spread from infected cones, symptoms are first noticeable on the lower branches, as old cones collect under the tree. Symptoms of infected trees become visible in summer through fall and resemble stunted needle growth and yellowing. Spores can be seen on the needles & old cones as black dots. Because cones are more susceptible to infection, younger, non-cone bearing trees are often symptom-free.

Managing Diplodia tip blight focuses on tree health and sanitation. Providing proper care such as no overhead (and proper) watering, mulching, pest management and fertilization, helps suppress the disease. Removal of diseased cones from the ground helps, but is not practical in large stands of pines. Pruning of infected tips will aesthetically improve the tree, but will do little in the stop of the disease.

Severely infected trees should be removed. A fungicide spray program needs to be implemented in the spring and includes at least three applications. Make the first application just prior to bud break* (which will be soon) and make two additional applications at 10-day intervals. It is important to get the first application on the trees before any bud sheaths have broken (the papery tan cover). If the tree you’re trying to save is of high value, consult a licensed ISA arborist, as the chemicals available to professionals are usually more effective.

* Indicator plants to watch for blooming that coincide with bud break:

  • Spiraea x vanhouttei – Vanhoutti Spirea
  • Cercis canadensis – Eastern Redbud
  • Chaenomeles speciosa – Quince
  • Syringa vulgaris – Common Lilac

© The Naturarian

Phenology – “The Timing of Things”

pink magnolia tree bloomingPhenology is a science in the timing of life cycle events in flora and fauna. The word phenology literally translates out to ‘the science of appearance’. Phenologists observe and study the relationship between events that take place with the season, local weather, or climate changes. Subjects in phenology include migration habits of birds, bud break, flowering, insect appearance, reproduction, allergy seasons, fall leaf color and animal hibernation times. Carl Linnaeus was one of the first scientists to record phenological observations. He also is famous for creating the classification system for plants we still use today.

Although more individuals utilized phenology in the past, using these observations/data today can aid land managers and anyone else wanting to lower their landscaping costs. Knowing exactly when to apply an herbicide or pesticide, when to fertilize, or when to plant, can greatly reduce the cost and risk to all landscape caregivers. An example would be that when forsythia blooms, it correlates with the temperature necessary in the germination of crabgrass, and if an herbicide preventing it’s germination is applied in this window, it can be prevented. Missing the window of applying the herbicide can result in the only other way to control this weed, mechanical cultivation, known as backbreaking, weeding work!

One enormous advantage of phenology is that you do not need a degree to participate, just dedication and a central location for records. Many websites collect data and provide databases for different plant and animal cycles. Project Budburst only monitors plants and is a bit more user friendly for the hobby gardener, and The National Phenology Network that monitors more than plants.

Collection of data must be precise for the information to reflect the correct geographic area. When submitting data to a plant database, individuals are required to give positive identification of plant, latitude/longitude and elevation of the plant, and any other notes that could affect these readings. Things that could affect readings are the plant is near a building, on a slope, or surrounded by other plants, any possibility of something creating a microclimate for the observed plant. This is why the same species of a plant can have a different cycle than one nearby. Observations of the subject plant need to be conducted at least three times a week. Information on these six phenological stages are collected: budburst (first leaf), full leaf, first flower, full flower, end flower, and seed or fruit dispersal. After the information has been collected, it can be compared with previous years and associations such as climate changes affecting plants can be made.

In the future, I will be reporting phenological events for Midwestern gardeners in an attempt to help them reduce or eliminate the use of pesticides.

© The Naturarian

Winter Damage on Evergreen Trees and Shrubs

Winter damage on evergreen - looks red or burnt

Winter burn happens when plants dry out during the winter. Even during the colder months, evergreens continue to lose water vapor through their needles, which are modified leaves. The plant attempts to replace the water by pulling it from the roots. However, when the ground is frozen, the roots cannot absorb enough water to supply it to the dry needles. If the weather turns breezy, warm and sunny while the ground is still frozen (like today, in the Midwest), evaporation from the needles increases and water cannot be replaced fast enough. Discolored, brown or burnt-looking foliage may start to appear when this happens. In fact, winter burn indicators typically develop during warm weather in late winter and early spring.

Winter damage is often misdiagnosed as a disease or as damage from excessively cold temperatures. The damage which starts at the tips, is brown or rust-colored and generally on the side of the plant facing the sun and/or the side exposed to the wind, where the rate of evaporation from the needles or leaves is greatest.Dense yew evergreen with rusty looking winter damage

Winter burn can be more prevalent in years in which the ground freezes early before plants are acclimated to cold weather or when there is little snow. Without snow cover or mulch to insulate the soil, the ground can freeze more deeply. Although this is not always true, as the amount of snow did not matter this year because of the frigid temperatures, the ground is still frozen about 2 feet down.

Light pruning can remove the burn, however some lazy gardeners (ahem… the author) wait for the needles to completely dry and brush them loose / let them fall a bit later in the season.

Winter Burn Management Strategies

azalea evergreen leaves with rust colored winter damage on leaves

Water well in fall: One inch per week or saturate to the depth of 12” to 18” inches. Watering should be continued through late autumn into early winter as long as the ground is not frozen.

Mulch: Use mulch around the plant so the entire root zone is covered. This will reduce moisture loss.

Build a barrier to wind. A burlap barrier can deflect wind from the plant.

Promote good culture. Monitor the amount of moisture in the spring when the plant is coming out of a period of frozen ground, and low moisture availability. Water as needed if the rainfall is less than an inch per week.

Many broad-leave evergreens such as: holly, boxwood, yews and rhododendrons will also have some winter burn this year.

 

© The Naturarian