Tag: nature

Don’t Let Crabgrass Get You Crabby!

Crabgrass (Digitaria sp.) is one of the most widespread grassy weeds found in Midwestern lawns. Crabgrass flourishes in full sunlight, high temperatures and can easily out compete common cool-season grasses, like our Kentucky Bluegrass. Crabgrass is a summer annual, which germinates in the spring, grows through the summer and dies with the first hard frost. They produce a tremendous amount of seeds in the mid to late summer when the days start to shorten. These seeds not only ensure next year’s crop of weeds, they can also remain dormant in the soil for many years before germinating. Generally, if you have crabgrass in your lawn, it will be there next year, also. Horticulturists say, “One year’s seed equals seven years weeding.” Gasp!!!

forsythia blooming yellow
Forsythia

The easiest way to take care of crabrass is to take care of it during the spring season, rather than take care of it later on in the season. A well-timed application of a ‘pre-emergent’ is what you’ll need. Just as the name states, a pre-emergent prevents seeds from germination. Killing it before it emerges. Be aware that you can’t use this type of herbicide if you are planning to or have just recently seeded your lawn, as it will kill those seeds also. Timing is critical, as the herbicide does not last long and must coincide with the seed wanting to germinate.

Crabgrass seed will not germinate until the soil temperatures are 55F degrees at the one-inch level. The Illinois State Water Survey reports soil temperature at the four-inch depth at St. Charles reporting station was 47.5F degrees on April 16. The soil temperature at one-inch will be slightly higher. This suggests Northern Illinois is approaching the right conditions for application. Next week the weathermen say it will be warm and that will help the soil temperatures progress. North Americans can go to this site for application timing. Or the indicator plant that can be used for application timing is ‘forsythia is in bloom’. Late April (now) into early May will most likely be our target for 2019.

© The Naturarian

13 Illinois Toads and Frogs

Here in the Midwest, you may not be able to see the flowers blooming yet, but you can hear the local residence waking from their long, winter slumber.

Vernal pools have started to form from the melted snow and early spring rainfall that the ground can’t uptake because of the frost line or excessive saturation. These vernal pools (also called ephemeral, temporary, or seasonal ponds) are where many frogs, salamanders and newts call home. These pools provide protection from predators that live in permanent bodies of water including fish, invertebrate predators, and even other amphibians, such as American Bullfrogs and Northern Green Frogs.

Frogs & toads are pretty cool creatures that can survive winters by hibernating and by having antifreeze run through their veins! Terrestrial frogs normally hibernate on land. American toads (Bufo americanus) and other frogs that are good diggers burrow deep into the soil, safely below the frost line. Aquatic frogs such as the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) and the leopard frog (Rana pipiens) typically hibernate underwater. Some frogs, such as the wood frog (Rana sylvatica) and the spring peeper (Hyla crucifer), are not skilled at digging and seek out deep cracks and crevices in logs or rocks, or just dig down as far as they can in the leaf litter.

Most frogs have amazing proteins in their blood, called nucleating proteins, that cause the water in their blood to freeze first. This ice sucks most of the water out of the frog’s cells dehydrating them. Then the frog’s liver starts making large amounts of glucose (a type of sugar) which fills into the cells and plumps them up. The concentrated sugar solution helps avoid additional water from being pulled out of the frog’s cells, which can cause death.

Right now, the majority of calls I hear are from the Western Chorus Frog. I think they sound like the noise made by running your finger over the teeth of a comb. Frogs and toads make many different calls that all sound alike, however mating calls are specific, which are what you will hear in the soundtracks. This is the easiest way to ID frogs, as seeing them at night might nearly be impossible.

Frogs of Illinois:

Western_chorus_frog
Western chorus frog

Western Chorus Frog – Pseudacris triseriata

Wood frog
Wood Frog

Wood Frog – Lithobates sylvaticus

American Toad
American Toad

American Toad – Anaxyrus americanus

Bull Frog
Bull Frog

Bull Frog – Lithobates catesbeianus

Tree Frog
Copes Grey Tree Frog

Copes Grey Tree Frog – Hyla chrysoscelis

Cricket Frog
Cricket Frog

Cricket Frog – Acris crepitans

frog
Eastern Grey Tree Frog

Eastern Grey Tree Frog – Hyla versicolor

Fowlers toad
Fowlers Toad

Fowlers Toad – Anaxyrus fowleri syn. Bufo fowleri 

Green Frog
Green Frog

Green Frog – Lithobates clamitans

Green Frog SOS Call

Northern Leopard Frog
Northern Leopard Frog

Northern Leopard Frog – Lithobates pipiens

Frog
Pickerel Frog

Pickerel Frog – Lithobates palustris

Plaines Frog
Plains Leopard Frog

Plains Leopard Frog – Lithobates blairi

Spring peeper frog
Spring Peeper Frog

Spring Peeper – Pseudacris crucifer

This one has to be my favorite. It’s just so cute!!

Credit: IL D N R for the Frog Calls!

© The Naturarian

A Broken Tree ~ Why Arborist’s Cry

damaged treeAlthough this story doesn’t have a happy ending, it must be told to prevent future devastation.

We were camping at one of our local campgrounds last October and this tree was on our site. I normally love to put supporting links to campgrounds in my blog, however I’m going to be anonymous on this one. For us, this campground is close (under an hour drive) and is on a river we like to kayak on. Sadly though, they don’t care for their campground whatsoever. Almost every tree in the campground is injured in one way or another. Many are ready to fall on campers with a good gust of wind! I cringe when I see these situations, as what am I to do? Tell the family of 6 to move their camper now, before you lose a few of your chitlins from a downed tree? I’d get a “Pffft, we’re fine, you crazy, tree lady!” Yeah, don’t mind the lady with the ‘Risk Assessment Arborist’ badge on her lapel. =-P

I’ve pondered highly about saying something to the owners of such campgrounds. I would think that they would love the free information from a licensed arborist! Of course, I can give constructive criticism without being accusatory. No one wants to be told they don’t know what they’re doing  😉 However, I’ve done this once with nasty repercussions.

I was at a campground that had poison ivy everywhere in spades! Some hung into the paths that people walk on. I mentioned this to the owner, who told me, “What am I supposed to do about it?” I said that there are landscapers that care for these types of situations and his reply was that he didn’t have the money to do it and people will just have to avoid it. I told him he could put up a sign that identifies the area and show folks what poison ivy looks like. He said he didn’t want people to be afraid to camp there and campers should know what PI looks like! This campground was charging $72 a night, without sewer. This is an outrageous fee, for you non-campers. Normal rates are about $30-$40, with sewer, at a private campground.

Sometimes, there’s really no risk involved in the landscape. Many times it’s just a plant health problem or an aesthetic thang.

Take a look at the photos of this tree… From a layman’s perspective, it may not look like there are any issues at all. However, upon further inspection, do you notice how large the trunk is compared to the canopy of the tree? A few years ago, the whole top of this tree broke off. Then the tree sent out a bunch of shoots from the broken trunk to compensate for the loss of its food-making leaves. These branches are not attached to the tree very well and can break with little effort. As you can see, many of the branches are dying already.

The last photo is of the root-crown and how it was planted. This tree had little chance from day one of ever surviving. It was buried too deep and has multiple girdling roots, which are roots that circle the trunk and only get tighter as the tree grows, cutting off its circulation, in layman’s terms.

Can this tree be saved? No. Its structure has been so compromised, there’s really no way to prune it back to a healthy shape.

Just like Prince sang, “This is what is sounds like…. when Arborists cry.”  😉 Or some thing like that!!


© The Naturarian

Beware of the Mulch Volcano ~ No Tree is Safe!!

mulch volcano There are many rumors out there that somehow become common knowledge that are very detrimental to whatever the cause is.

Mulching trees is one of them. I am so saddened when I see trees mulched up to their lower branches, called ‘Mulch Volcanoes’. If the truck of your tree looks the same as a telephone pole, there’s too much mulch on it!!! The tree should flare out where it comes out of the ground.tree fell due to too much mulch on trunk

Sadly, homeowners see this and think this is the correct way to go and the vicious cycle continues. Professional landscapers do it all the time just to fill their pockets, telling you it’s horticulturally correct. Don’t fall for it! You DO NOT need to add mulch to your beds yearly. It is a good idea to cultivate what is still there, though. My advice is to apply biannually or where it may have eroded.

There are many problems that a mulch volcano can cause. Girdling roots, poor growth, mold to name a few.. However, crown rot rates as a number one worst issue. One stiff breeze is all it will take. Notice in the photo to the right, the trunk snapped off right at the mulch-line. These types of happenings can cause some costly repairs. Mulch volcanoes are sneaky. This tree looked completely healthy. Sometimes a tree with a lot of gumption will grow large, however the bigger they are, the harder they fall.

Here are my PeeGee Hydrangea trees, PROPERLY mulched, which looked to have survived my fall planting. You can clearly see the root flair at the top of the mulch line. I really only put enough over the rootball to make it the same color/blend well with the mulch doughnut.

tree properly mulched

correct way to mulch

Below is a reality check. Look how high that mulch was! 😯

© The Naturarian

Redheads Beware – Dutch Elm Disease is In the Air!

Last week, a BBC Radio broadcast featured an interview with an elderly academic, Dr. Clothier, who talked about the government’s efforts to stop the spread of Dutch Elm Disease, which had been infecting many of England’s trees. Dr. Clothier described some startling discoveries about the tree disease. For instance, he referred to the research of Dr. Emily Lang of the London School of Pathological and Environmental Medicine who had found that exposure to Dutch Elm Disease immunized people to the common cold.

Unfortunately, there was a side effect. Exposure to the disease also caused red hair to turn blonde. It is thought that the similarity between the blood count of redheads and the soil conditions is what caused the change. Therefore, redheads are advised to stay away from forests for the foreseeable future, until there are no longer any Elm trees in existence.

Red-blonde-Ombre-Hairstyle

APRIL FOOLS!!!

Dr. Clothier was actually the comedian Spike Milligan. This was originally pranked in 1950.

© The Naturarian

How to Attract Butterflies With Host Trees!

I’ve seen and read many lists of flowers to plant to attract pollinators, including butterflies to the garden. How a flower is shaped and when it blooms are key to luring these beauties in. Although I feel it’s a great start to attracting a diversity of insects to the garden, most of these lists only address the feeding aspects of an adult butterfly.

Another detail I notice is most lists only include annuals and perennials, which are herbaceous (soft stemmed). Many great trees and shrubs are lacking representation in these blooming lists. Not only that, butterflies need ‘host plants’ for their larvae. A host plant is just what it sounds like, a plant that an insect (butterfly) can lay their eggs on and when the larvae hatch, can be fed upon. Usually, we’re not talking about much damage to the tree. Nothing the tree can’t handle.

Because I speak for the Lorax, and he speaks for the trees… I’ve compiled a list of TREES that many butterfly parents choose to raise their young on. So, don’t just think of the adult butterfly and the flowers, think about a great investment tree, that can serve as a butterfly nursery!

If you’d like a quote for a tree install, please contact me 🙂

The following is a list of larval host tree & shrubs and the butterfly species that are attracted to them.

Printable List – .pdf format

Amelanchier spp. – Serviceberry

  • Bruce Spanworm
  • Blindy Sphinx (small)
  • Striped Hairstreak
  • Amorpha canescens
  • Black-spotted Prominent
  • Dog Face
  • Asimina triloba
  • Zebra Swallowtail

Betula spp. – Birch

  • Compton Tortoiseshell
  • Dreump Duskywing
  • Mourning Cloak
  • Tiger Swallowtail
  • White-marked Tussock Moth

Carya spp. – Hickory

  • Hickory Hairstreak
  • Hickory Horn D.
  • Luna Moth
  • Skipper spp.

Catalpa

  • Catalpa Sphinx
  • Ceanothus americanus
  • Filamont Beaver
  • Spring/Summer Azure

Celtis spp. – Hackberry

  • American Snout
  • Io Moth
  • Question Mark
  • Mourning Cloak
  • Spiny Oak Slug
  • Tawny Emperor
  • Comptonia
  • Gray Hairstreak

Cornus spp. – Dogwood

  • Monkey Slug
  • Dogwood Thyativid
  • Polyphemus Moth
  • Spring/Summer Azure
  • Unicorn Caterpillar

Corylus spp. – Filbert

  • Polyphemus Moth
  • Saddled Prominent

Crataegus spp. – Hawthorn

  • Interruped Dagger Moth
  • Small Eyed Sphinx
  • Smeared Dagger Moth
  • Striped Hairstreak
  • Fraxinus spp.
  • American Dagger Moth
  • Black Auches
  • Giant Leopard Moth
  • Harvis Three-Spot
  • Hickory Horned Devil
  • Linden Looper
  • Spiny Oak Slug
  • Tiger Swallowtail
  • Lindera benzoin
  • Giant Leopard Moth
  • Promethea Moth
  • Spicebush Swallowtail

Populus spp. – Poplar

  • Compton Tortoiseshell
  • Red-spotted Purple
  • Twin Spotted Sphinx
  • Satin Moth
  • Sigmoid Prominent
  • Viceroy
  • Virgin Moth

Prunus spp. – Cherry

  • Cherry Dagger Moth
  • Coral Hairstreak
  • Striped Hairstreak
  • Viceroy
  • Wild Cherry Sphinx

Prunus serotina – Black Cherry

  • Tiger Swallowtail
  • Red-spotted Purple

Ptelea trifoliata – Common hoptree

  • Giant Swallowtail
  • Quercus spp.
  • Striped Hairstreak
  • Edward’s Hairstreak
  • Banded Hairstreak

Rhus spp. – Sumac

  • Spring/Summer Azure

Ribes spp. – Currant

  • Gray Comma
  • Rubus spp.
  • Sphinx Hairstreak

Salix spp. – Willow

  • Acadian Hairstreak
  • Compton Tortoiseshell
  • Mourning Cloak
  • Northern Finned Prominent
  • Red-spotted Purple
  • Striped Hairstreak
  • Viceroy
  • Sassafras albidum
  • Cecropia Moth
  • Imperial Moth
  • Io Moth
  • Spicebush Swallowtail
  • Smilax
  • Spotted Phosphila
  • Turbulent

Spiraea spp. – Spirea

  • Woolly Bear

Tilia spp. – Basswood

  • Question Mark

Viburnum spp.

  • Hummingbird Cloverwing
  • Vitis spp.
  • Grapeleaf Skeletoniter
  • Xanthoxylum spp.
  • Giant Swallowtail
  • Skipper spp.

© The Naturarian

Study Guide for the Illinois Pesticide Exam

A few landscaping cohorts requested my study notes from when I took the Illinois Pesticide License test. These notes specifically address pesticide formulas and mixtures, something I thought the study guides lacked in. Although I did buy the study guides (available in the links below), I always look for additional (FREE) information online. I feel there was a shortage of good information that wasn’t just repeating what the guide said. The notes I made below are to be used like flash cards. You will need to know the information ahead of time, these notes just reinforce the already learned information.

Remember!! Even if you’re organic, you’re required to be pesticide licensed in your respective state.

The University of Illinois Pesticide Safety Education Program is the site to visit for all of the information required to get licensed.

Click here for the Illinois State Study courses from the Illinois Extension – Courses

Click here for a printable .pdf version of the notes below – Pesticide Test Notes

PESTICIDE FORMULAS

DRY FORMULAS

SP = SOLUBLE POWDERS – Agitate to form a solution. Not many available as many don’t dissolve in H2O.

WP = WETABLE POWDERS – Contains wetting/dispersion agents + strong agitation form a suspension. Abrasive to pumps. Anti-foam adjuvants may help.

DF & WDG = DRY FLOWABLES & WATER-DISPERSIBLE GRANUALS – Formulated into a granule instead of a powder. Forms a suspension requiring strong agitation. Abrasive to pumps.

G = GRANULES – Applied directly. Most often used for soil treatment. H2O may need to be applied for activation.

P or PS = PELLETS – Usually larger than granules & more uniform in shape. Rat/insect baits.

D = DUSTS – Low % of active ingredient. Carrier of talc/clay/chalk. Apply directly. Watch for drift.

WET FORMULAS

E & EC = EMULSIFIABLE CONCENTRATES – Active ingredient in oil & w/mild agitation forms an emulsion mixture. Not abrasive to pumps, but may harm rubber or paint. Hazardous as drift & dermaly as it’s easily absorbed. Anti-foam adjuvants may help.

M & ME = MICRO-ENCAPSULATED – Active ingredient in plastic coated capsule suspended in liquid. Time-released & long residual activity. Constant agitation. Careful around beehives.

F & FL & L = FLOWABLES OR LIQUIDS – (Pre-suspended WP’s) Less inhalation hazard. Forms a suspension requiring moderate agitation. Abrasive to pumps.

S = SOLUTIONS – A true solution. No agitation, residue or abrasion.

OTHER

A = AEROSOLS – Low % of active ingredients & ready to use. Under pressure.

B = POISON BAITS – Active ingredient mixed w/food or H2O. Usually in a bait box, for safety.

FUMIGANTS – Produce gas from a liquid. Need special license.

ADJUVANTS = A chemical that modifies or enhances a pesticide’s properties. NOT regulated, be careful.

DRIFT REDUCTION ADDITIVES = Increases droplet size to reduce drift.

STICKERS = Increases adherence of chemical increasing persistence.

SURFACTANT = “Surface-active agents” reduces the surface tension in H2O. Use on waxy or hairy leaves.

PENETRANTS = Oil (petroleum or veggie) that aids penetration of foliage.

BUFFERING AGENTS = Balances pH of carrier to keep pesticides active.

COMPATIBILITY AGENTS = Allows effective mixing of 2 or more pesticides or w/fertilizer.

ANTI-FOAMING AGENTS = Reduces foam in EC or WP formulas.

 

PESTICIDE MIXTURES

CHEMICAL INCOMPATIBILITY = An unnoticeable reaction of mixed pesticides, noticed when things go bad.

ANTAGONISM = Decreased activity. Never desirable.

SYNERGISM = Increased activity. Can be used to your advantage.

PHYSICAL INCOMPATIBILITY = Caused by improper mixing, inadequate agitations, lack of stable emulsifiers, or hard H2O.

 

TANK MIXTURES
Label should have mixing order, but if not:

CARRIER – Fill tank ¼ to ½ full.
COMPATIBILITY, BUFFERING, or ANTI-FOAMING AGENTS.
DRIFT REDUCTION ADDITIVE – READ LABEL – May need to be added early or late in mix.
WETABLE POWDERS
DRY FLOWABLES & WATER-DISPERABLE GRANULES
FLOWABLE & MICRO-ENCAPSULATED
EMULSIFIABLE CONCENTRATES
SOLUTIONS
SOLUBLE POWDERS
SPRAY MODIFIERS – PENETRANTS & SURFACTANTS – Pre-slurry if using dry ingredients.
CARRIER – Fill tank to desired level.

**Agitate mixture throughout mixing process & application.

TIMING OF APPLICATION

EPP = EARLY PRE-PLANT – Applied several weeks B/4 a crop is planted.

PPI = PRE-PLANT INCORPORATION – Applied prior to planting, worked into soil.

PrE = PRE-EMERGENCE – Applied during or soon after planting, but B/4 weeds emerge.

PoE = POST-EMERGENCE – Applied to foliage.

© The Naturarian

Why Mosquitoes Like You

1 Down – 632,764,231,897,752 to go!

Goodness! It is March 25th, 2019 and I just killed a mosquito that was going to snack on me. This is what was left of the bitch after I got through with her. Makes you want to think twice about messing with me 😉

She is a pretty powerful beast and I’m not tooting my own horn here, however she is considered one of the most deadly animals in the world! (Most likely just under human). She can transmit infections such as malaria, yellow feverwest Nile virus, Chikungunya, dengue fever, filariasis, Zika virus and other arboviruses.

All it takes is a few days over 50F degree temps to wake her up from her hibernation. Yes, these bitches hibernate.

Another amazing fun fact – She can smell her dinner from a distance of up to 100 yards via carbon dioxide. So in lieu of listing off the many, many things folks use to repel these little sweethearts, I’m going to let you know how to avoid what’s attracting them in the first place!

Things that tend to attract these little darlings include:

  • People with high concentrations of steroids or cholesterol on their skin attract mosquitoes. That doesn’t mean that these dive-bombers prey on people with higher, internal levels of cholesterol, but those people who have more of the byproducts of processing cholesterol, which remain on the skin’s surface.
  • People who produce a higher amount of certain acids, such as uric acid (gout), can trigger a skeeters olfactory glands, luring them in.
  • Uncle Bob and his application of a half a bottle of Old Spice.
  • People wearing darker clothing.
  • People with type O Blood tend to get snacked on more, followed by B, with A coming in last.
  • People moving around and sweating, compared to the folks lounging on chaises.
  • The Drunks will get attacked more over the Sobers as alcohol raises temperatures and causes more flailing of the arms 😉
  • That being said about the sweating above, more specifically, these whores like old sweat. Bacteria on your skin will change odor after it has been snacking on chemicals in your sweat. So, if you had a rough day of activities, then slow down for a seat at the campfire that evening without showering, you’re essentially screaming ‘Bite Me!’.
  • Another fav smell of the incarnates of evil are smelly feet! It’s the double-latte-three-shot-espresso version of old sweat. You may not attract any human females with that stench, but the mozzie females will go nuts. Don’t eat Limburger cheese either. Did you know it was the same bacteria that makes your feet smell. Eauuuu!
  • Stop eating bananas, the added potassium makes you more attractive to bite. Eat more garlic and vitamin B1 instead.

I wish you the best in the upcoming season of itch.

© The Naturarian

Common Snowdrops ~ Galanthus nivalis ~ Blooming 3-23-2019

White snowdrop bulb bloomingWow! A Saturday post! 😉white snowdrop bulb blooming I usually like to collect
my photos on the weekends and post on the weekdays, HOWEVER, this was too awesome to wait!

I noticed this little donation from Mother Nature on the side of my house last year! I didn’t see any in the past, however, it was April 9th when I had discovered them last year. Way later than this year. I hope this is a good sign that things will progress a bit faster this year! Mr. Groundhog is hopefully right.

© The Naturarian

St. Patrick’s Day Limerick

green flower bouquet

I once met a flower that was green,

She blended right in and was not seen.

But, now it’s St. Patty’s,

And green is the fancy.

The wallflower now shines like a Queen.

Limerick – A short sometimes vulgar, humorous poem consisting of five anapestic lines. Lines 1, 2, and 5 have seven to ten syllables, rhyme and have the same verbal rhythm. The 3rd and 4th lines have five to seven syllables, rhyme and have the same rhythm.

Some Saint Patrick Fun Facts (SPOILER! These facts are not St. P Day friendly…)

St. Patrick wasn’t even Irish! Born in England circa 385, St. Patrick didn’t arrive in Ireland until Irish pirates kidnapped him at age 16. After escaping and becoming a priest, he returned to Ireland to convert the Irish to Christianity and became an Irish patron saint.

The original color for St. Patrick’s Day wasn’t green.  The odd thing is that green wasn’t even the original color used to represent St. Patrick; it was blue. After the Order of St. Patrick was established in 1783, the organization’s color had to stand out from those that preceded it. Since dark green was already taken, the Order of St. Patrick went with blue.

There were no snakes for St. Patrick to banish in Ireland. St. Patrick was known through folklore for having chased away snakes in Ireland, thus protecting townspeople from the mysterious creatures and sending them to the sea. However, Ireland didn’t have snakes at the time. Surrounded by icy water, Ireland was the last place that these cold-blooded reptiles would want to go. It’s much more reasonable to think that the “snakes” that St. Patrick banished were representative of the Druids and Pagans in Ireland since they were considered evil.

St. Patrick was never canonized by a pope. St. Patrick never got canonized by a pope, making his saintly status somewhat questionable. But in all fairness, St. Patrick wasn’t the only saint that didn’t go through a proper canonization. In the Church’s first millennium, there wasn’t a formal canonization process at all, so most saints from that period were given the title if they were either martyrs or seen as extraordinarily holy.

St. Patrick used the shamrock to explain the holy trinity to the Pagan believers who already believed in a multi-god religion.  He also utilized the sun, a strong presence in the Pagan religion and incorporated it into the cross, now known as a Celtic cross. Many Christian’s bastardized Pagan holidays to help convert Pagans to Christianity.

It wasn’t arbitrary that the day honoring Saint Patrick was placed on the 17th of March. The festival was designed to coincide, and (it was hoped), to replace the Pagan holiday known as Ostara; the second spring festival which occurs each year, which celebrates the rebirth of nature, the balance of the universe when the day and night are equal in length, and which takes place at the Spring Equinox. In other words, Saint Patrick’s Day is yet another Christian replacement for a much older, ancient Pagan holiday. Although generally speaking, Ostara was most prominently replaced by the Christian celebration of Easter (the eggs and the bunny come from Ostara traditions, and the name “Easter” comes from the Pagan goddess Eostre).

© The Naturarian